To control this movement of rainwater, Keyline Design uses “off contour” drift when tilling furrows. Provides more uniform distribution of irrigation water. This system also observes that at the end of a contour, the land is always steeper on one side than the other leading to furrows deviating from the true contour when plowing parallel to a contour, thus making rainwater flow to the steeper side and increase erosion. Contour ridges produced by tillage and planting form barriers that slow downhill water movement and decrease surface runoff and erosion. Reduces the time needed for irrigation. 6. In many countries, both small-scale subsistence farmers and largescale farmers try to overcome slopes through this method. Other advantages include reduced fuel and labor requirements. Furrows that run up and down a slope form a channel that can quickly carry away seeds and topsoil. When the entire length of furrow is supplied with water soon after irrigation begins, less water is wasted below the root zone at the head of the runs. Reduces irrigation labor costs. On slopes with no contours, water runoff quickly without the soil properly absorbing it and carrying the top fertile soil with it, therefore, leaving a non-fertile land up the slope. The first ever recorded contour farming in the US came at the turn of the nineteenth century but the country did not fully embrace this method until during the twentieth century. Plowing and planting across slope contours create man-made water breaks that not only allows enough time for the water to enter the soil, but also to settles the topsoil without washing it down the slope. ... Other benefits include providing habitat for wildlife and in some regions the trees are harvested for wood products. During the time of Thomas Jefferson’s term, farmers called this system “horizontal plowing” and his relative, Randolph, developed a plowing technique that caught water in ridges of upturned land unlike plowing down like roof shingles. The rows formed slow surface water run-off during rainstorms to prevent soil erosion and allows the water time to infiltrate into the soil. Again, movement of soil surface nutrients freely from the upper slop can be trapped by the contours to retain the nutrients. Contour plowing (or contour ploughing) or contour farming is the farming practice of plowing across a slope following its elevation contour lines. 2. This move was after a realization that soil erosion, just like desertification, was a threat to agricultural sustainability in the US. Reduces the erosion hazard in each furrow and permits you to irrigate efficiently land too steep for downhill furrows. Other techniques to include are growing bush or tree borders across the slopes (vegetative barriers), residue management, and mulching to protect the soil. Produces more uniform crop stands, increases yields, and improves quality. 7. Grassed waterways are also important, especially where there is a high concentration of runoff water while grassed strips come in handy where the contour lines are too sharp for farming equipment to plow. 4. When done right, this method reduces erosion by more than 50%. Such supplements include strip cropping, use of cover crops, use of windbreaks, grassing waterways, and building terraces among others. pro 2- going back and forth save gas … It generally takes more labor for the first irrigation using contour fur- rows. Fields must be carefully planned and then planted between staked guidelines, running across the field on the proper irrigation grade. The most important advantage of conservation tillage systems is significantly less soil erosion due to wind and water. Find the perfect contour plowing stock photo. Yeoman devised the Keyline Design that guides contour farming in order to get some minimum ideals. Deep plowing can be aided by simultaneously adding green manure into planting rows and deep fertilization. 4. Drawbacks to contour plowing have caused it to be less widely used than conventional tillage methods. This practice eventually spread to different parts of Europe who also introduced contour farming to some of their colonies. Contour Plowing. This method equally prevents soil erosion and can improve soil fertility through crop rotation. In comparison with down -slope irrigation, water in contour furrows moves more slowly across the field and, therefore, does not erode or wash the soil. Soil Conservation Service (today named the Natural Resources Conservation Service) recommended contour plowing to reduce the occurrence of crop failures and soil erosion caused by drought conditions. In addition, the book noted that the trend had other consequences including, low food supply, massive loss of jobs and properties, and increased commodity prices. Ridging and adding new soils along planting rows are widely used in all kiwifruit production regions in China. First, contour farming maintains soil fertility by preventing downwash of the fertile topsoil of a farm and consequently enabling betters yields. Other benefits are and time efficiency and reduced use of machines which in turn reduce the wear and tear. P.A. The plow follows the contours of the land horizontally helping to reduce runoff of water. In applicable situations, deep plowing can break up pans to increase water infiltration and reduce runoff and erosion. Contour Furrow Irrigation. The Keyline Design looks at how specific topographies link to water flow for an optimum use of water on a farm. Develop an action plan to use contour ploughing to protect soils on your farm: identify where contour ploughing could help you to protect the soils on your farm. Contour-furrow irrigation can be a deciding factor in maintaining our agricultural production and our standard of living. This pays off in better yields and in higher quality products. For contour farming to be effective, the resulting curved furrows around the slope ought to be on equal levels. Farming is one of the oldest and sustainable human activities. With the reduced loss of fertility comes the reduced use of fertilizer and a reduced cost of purchasing fertilizers. Contour farming captures twice the soil moisture and reduces soil erosion up to eight-fold. To roll out a massive campaign for contour farming, the Soil Conservation Service partnered with federal institutions, state governments, universities, and communities in order to promote the method to both small-scale and large-scale farmers as well as to research more on how to achieve the best results with the method. Click here to learn more. During the period of Ancient Greek, a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization, the Phoenicians, who originated from the Eastern Mediterranean, practiced some of the earliest forms of contour farming. Turn shapeless, flat brows into defined, contoured brows in an instant. Maintenance rectifies unforeseen mistakes as well as repair areas that elements of nature destroyed. pros of contour plowing. 3. Our multi-tasking brow pencil features a lighter brow shade, deeper brow shade, edge definer and arch highlighter to create clean, shaped brows with depth & dimension. Your equipment will be operated across the slope most of the time. Requires control of water in furrows. Straight beds may have more visual appeal and are easy to harvest or hoe between, but they’re not always best to conserve moisture. 3. Crop rotation means planting different plant families in an area every year on a rotation. Hoola quickie contour stick’s dome shape tip ensures a smooth, targeted application every time!. Contour farming can have one crop on the farm or a mixture of several crops through strip cropping. In most cases, rainwater washes farming fertilizers downstream and consequently contaminating freshwater systems. Over a period, societies who embraced irrigation farming adopted this method of plowing and planting. When done right, this method reduces erosion by more than 50%. In the design, contours ought to be made in specific ways to control rainfall runoff and maximize irrigation of undulating land during fast floods without building terraces. You waste little water by surface runoff or by over irrigation at the upper end of the furrows. The Pros/Benefits/Advantages of Contour- Furrow Irrigation: 1. Furthermore, water retention improves soil quality, irrigation, and water conservation thus reducing labor that would have gone into physical fetching of water. First, contour farming maintains soil fertility by preventing downwash of the fertile topsoil of a farm and consequently enabling betters yields. Requires engineering layout. Within the next four years, the new agricultural techniques reduced soil erosion by approximately 65% although drought prevailed. Contour plowing and crop rotation compare in many different ways, like they both use techniques to preserve soil. Contour plowing means plowing across the slope so the topsoil doesn't all wash downhill as it would if the ridges ran up and down. 2. 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